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Enmeshed Mother: Signs, Causes, Effects, and Treatment

Are you dealing with a narcissistic mother who is overly involved in your own life?

Are you dealing with a narcissistic mother who is overly involved in your own life?

If yes, then you may be experiencing a phenomenon known as enmeshment. Enmeshment occurs when the boundaries between parent and child become indistinct, and the parent becomes overly involved in the child’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. This can lead to a codependent relationship where the child relies heavily on their mother for validation and approval.

If you recognize these dynamics in your relationship with your mother, you may struggle to create healthy boundaries and establish a sense of self. In this article, we will explore the signs, causes, effects,  and treatment of an enmeshed mother so that you can better understand your experiences and find ways to cope and heal.

What Is Enmeshment?

Enmeshment is a term used to describe a type of family system where boundaries are blurred and family members are overly involved in each other’s lives. It happens when the lines between parent and child become indistinct and intertwined, meaning the parent-child relationship becomes unhealthy because personal boundaries are not established or respected. 

The idea initially came from Salvador Minuchin, the father of structural family therapy. Through his analysis, he skillfully examines the intricate relationship between family dynamics and an individual’s level of dysfunction or functionality.

Conventional Family Structure Vs. Enmeshed Family Dynamics

A healthy parent-child relationship has clear emotional boundaries, and the child is encouraged to be independent and develop their own identity and personal space. Parents support and guide their children but also allow them the freedom to pursue their interests and make their own choices.

In enmeshed families, there is often a lack of individuality and personal boundaries. Children are not allowed to have their own thoughts or feelings, as they are expected to align with those of their parents. Children may feel responsible for their parent’s happiness and well-being and may experience feelings of guilt when prioritizing their own needs. This can result in a lack of personal autonomy and difficulty forming healthy relationships outside the family unit.

Enmeshment with Mothers

The most common form of enmeshment is between a mother and her child. This is due to the close bond that forms between a mother and her child, especially during the early years. 

Enmeshment with mothers manifests as an excessively dependent relationship where the mother becomes overly involved in her children’s lives and decisions, resulting in a lack of independence for them.

The issue can sometimes manifest as “helicopter parenting,” where parents become overly protective and excessively focused on their child’s progress, preventing the child from facing challenges on their own and impeding future growth and development. It can lead to an insecure attachment style where the child struggles with forming healthy family relationships due to a lack of understanding of boundaries and independence. 

This can occur with both sons and daughters, but it may manifest differently based on the child’s gender. Let’s explore what enmeshment looks like in these different scenarios.

Mother-Son Enmeshment

In a mother-son-enmeshed relationship, the son may feel pressured to meet his mother’s emotional needs, leading to an unhealthy dynamic. This can make the son feel responsible for the mother’s well-being and happiness, which can be overwhelming.

Additionally, an enmeshed son may need help asserting his opinions and making independent decisions. This can lead to low self-esteem and a lack of confidence in their abilities.

Mothers who are enmeshed with their sons may have difficulty letting go of control as their son grows up. This dynamic is often called the “mama’s boy” stereotype, where the mother has an overly involved role in her adult son’s life. They may continue to parent their son as if he were a child, resulting in the son lacking independence and struggling to make decisions on his own.

While this mother-son relationship can provide a strong bond and may be seen as endearing or harmless in some cases, it can also have negative effects on the child’s life. 

Some signs of mother-son enmeshment may include:

  • Overinvolvement in the son’s life, including decisions and relationships
  • Overprotectiveness towards the son
  • They may also struggle with becoming their own person and developing a sense of self outside of their mother’s influence
  • Difficulty setting boundaries with the child
  • The son struggles to form healthy romantic relationships
  • Emotional dependency where the mother relies on her son for emotional support and validation
  • Lack of individual identity outside of being a mother to her son

Mother-Daughter Enmeshment

Similarly, mothers can also become enmeshed with their daughters. Mother-daughter relationships are often seen as close and supportive, but when enmeshment occurs, it can become unhealthy and damaging. 

It may differ from mother-son enmeshment in that the mother may see her daughter as an extension of herself and have high expectations for her to fulfill her own unmet needs or dreams. This can lead to the daughter feeling pressure to live up to these expectations and not being able to explore their own identity and desires fully.

Enmeshment can result in daughters lacking independence and self-worth and relying on their mothers for validation. It can lead to an avoidant attachment style, causing difficulty in forming close relationships. This behavior may be a defense mechanism against unpredictable emotional responses from the enmeshed parent.

Here are some signs of an enmeshed mother-daughter relationship:

Difficulty setting boundaries: The daughter may feel guilty or anxious about asserting her own needs and desires, leading to a lack of healthy boundaries.

Lack of autonomy: The daughter may need help with making decisions for herself, constantly seeking approval or validation from her mother.

Over-involvement: The mother may be overly involved in the daughter’s life, making decisions for her and not allowing her to develop independence.

Emotional manipulation: The mother may use emotional tactics such as guilt or control to keep the daughter close and reliant on her.

What Are the Signs of an Enmeshed Mother?

If you suspect you’re in an enmeshed relationship with your mother, here are tell-tale signs to look out for.

1. Lack of Independence

An enmeshed mother is overly involved in her child’s life, leading to a lack of independence. Children may grow up relying heavily on their mothers for decision-making and direction. 

For example, adult children may still ask for permission or consult their mothers regarding career choices, relationships, and personal beliefs.

2. Over-Control

Another sign of an enmeshed mother is excessive control over her child’s life and choices. This can manifest in various ways, such as dictating who the child spends time with, what activities they participate in, or even controlling their appearance and eating habits.

For instance, an enmeshed mother may dictate how her child dresses, speaks, and eats, often to the point of micromanaging and restricting their personal expression. This can lead to a lack of individual identity and autonomy, as the child is constantly under their mother’s control.

Enmeshed Mother

3. Emotional Manipulation

Another common sign of an enmeshed mother is emotional manipulation. This can involve guilt-tripping, gaslighting, or using verbal abuse to control and manipulate her child’s emotions. 

An enmeshed mother may use phrases like “I sacrificed everything for you” or “You owe me because I gave birth to you” to manipulate her child into complying with her wishes. This can create a toxic dynamic where the child feels responsible for their mother’s emotions and is unable to express themselves openly without fear of backlash or punishment.

In enmeshed relationships, disagreements are often met with anger and emotional manipulation instead of open communication and compromise. This can lead to a cycle of control and conflict, making it difficult for the child to express their own needs without fear of retaliation from their mother

4. Obscured Identity

Enmeshed mothers often have a controlling nature and may try to dictate their children’s behavior, beliefs, and decisions. Consequently, individuals may find themselves prioritizing their mother’s desires and preferences over their own. Individuals may feel like they are living a life that is not their own and may have difficulty making decisions or taking action without their mother’s approval. This can lead to feelings of insecurity and low self-esteem as individuals struggle to establish a sense of self.

To avoid conflicts with their enmeshed mothers, individuals may suppress or ignore their feelings and instead adopt their mother’s emotions and opinions as their own. This can cause confusion and a lack of self-awareness, as individuals may struggle to recognize and differentiate their own feelings from those of their enmeshed mothers.

5. Over-Involvement

In an enmeshed relationship with their mother, children often face over-involvement from their mothers. This may manifest in various ways, such as the mother being overly controlling or intrusive in the child’s life.

Sometimes, parents may innocently try to become their children’s “best friends,” thinking it’s harmless. However, these types of relationships can have several drawbacks and result in a lack of boundaries.

For example, an enmeshed mother may constantly check in on their child, make decisions for them without consulting them, or become overly involved in their social lives, even their romantic relationships.

This can create difficulties in adulthood as the child may struggle with decision-making and taking responsibility for their actions.

6. Favoritism

Moreover, enmeshed mothers may also exhibit favoritism towards one child over the others. This can lead to unhealthy competition and comparison between siblings, causing resentment and low self-esteem in the less favored child.

In some cases, this favoritism may also be used as a manipulation tactic by the mother to control or influence their child’s decisions and behaviors.

When a child feels that they are not equally loved and valued by their mother, it can significantly impact their self-worth and relationships with others.

7. Narcissism

Narcissism is often associated with enmeshment, as an enmeshed mother may have a narcissistic personality. This means she has an excessive need for admiration and attention and may use her children to fulfill this need. She may see her child as an extension of herself and expect them to live up to her expectations and fulfill her unmet needs.

For instance, an enmeshed mother may push her child to excel in a particular field or activity because it reflects positively on her as a parent. She may also see any success or achievements of her child as her own and take credit for them. This can put a lot of pressure on the child and affect their sense of self-worth.

Enmeshment doesn’t solely entail being overwhelmed with affection, but it can also manifest as excessive efforts to fulfill the parent’s demands.

8. Unhealthy Relationships

Parents play a crucial role when it comes to their children’s emotional and social development. In cases of a mother’s enmeshment, that basis becomes challenged.

Communication, emotional vulnerability, healthy boundaries, and mutual respect are all essential foundations in relationship-building. An enmeshed mother will likely hinder her child’s development in these factors.

The child will find it more challenging to develop meaningful and healthy relationships outside their family. It can lead to feelings of isolation.

9. Role Reversal

Enmeshed mothers often rely heavily on their children for emotional support, leading to a role reversal where the child becomes the caregiver. This can overwhelm the child, as they are not equipped to handle their mother’s emotional needs.

In some cases, enmeshed mothers may also turn to their children for financial or practical support, creating an unhealthy dependency that can hinder the child’s personal growth and independence.

It is important for children to have a healthy relationship with their parents where there is mutual support and respect, rather than one where the roles are reversed, and the child feels responsible for their mother’s emotional well-being.

10. Competitiveness with the Significant Other

In enmeshed mother-daughter relationships, the mother may view her daughter as a rival for attention and love from the significant other. This can create an unhealthy dynamic where the daughter feels pressured to compete with her own mother for affection.

The daughter may also feel guilty for spending time with their significant other instead of their mother, leading to feelings of resentment towards both parties.

This level of competition can also lead to a lack of trust and strained relationships between the daughter and her significant other. The mother’s enmeshment may also cause her to feel threatened by any outside relationships, leading to controlling behavior towards her daughter’s social life.

11. Relationship Issues

Individuals who have experienced enmeshment with their mothers often face difficulties in forming and maintaining healthy relationships. The intense emotional connection to their mother may make it difficult for them to fully invest in a romantic relationship or prioritize their partner’s needs.

Family enmeshment can often spill over into your intimate relationships, causing moments where you may lash out at your partner. These outbursts stem from the built-up anger and resentment you harbor towards your mother’s controlling behavior. Since confronting your mother about these negative emotions may be difficult, your partner may bear the brunt of these emotions instead.

Causes of Enmeshment with Mothers

Various factors, including family dynamics, cultural norms, and personal insecurities, can cause enmeshment with mothers. 

Some common causes of enmeshment include:

  • Overprotective parenting: When a parent is overly involved in their child’s life and makes decisions for them without giving them space to make their own choices, it can lead to enmeshment.
  • Lack of boundaries: Without clear boundaries between a mother and child, it can result in enmeshment. This can happen when the parent sees their child as an extension of themselves rather than a separate individual with their own thoughts and feelings.
  • Emotional dependency: Mothers may become emotionally dependent on their children for validation, support, or companionship, leading to enmeshment. This can happen when the mother relies on their child for emotional fulfillment and becomes overly involved in their life.
  • Unresolved childhood issues: A mother’s unresolved childhood traumas or unmet needs may lead them to seek emotional closeness with their child, resulting in enmeshment.
  • Cultural expectations: Some cultures prioritize collectivism and place a strong emphasis on family. This can be seen in countries like the Middle East, China, Italy, and Japan, where family units are tightly knit and interconnected. Filial piety, or respect for parents and elders, is highly valued in these cultures. In contrast, the U.S. and U.K. have highly individualistic cultures where young adults are expected to leave their family homes once they reach the age of 18.
  • Personal insecurities: Mothers who struggle with low self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy may seek validation and reassurance from their child, leading to enmeshment.

Certain life events, such as divorce, the death of a family member, or the birth of a new child, can also exacerbate enmeshment with mothers. These changes in family dynamics can cause a mother to become overly involved with her child to cope with the loss or change.

Effects of Enmeshment with Mothers

Dealing with an overly-attached mother can potentially cause long-term damaging effects on mental health. It’s often referred to as enmeshment trauma. Enmeshment can have a lasting impact on adult children and adolescents, affecting their emotional, social, and personal development. 

Below are several potential effects of enmeshment:

Difficulty Forming and Maintaining Relationships

Enmeshment can lead to a lack of trust and difficulty in developing deep connections with others. The individual may also struggle with codependency in their relationships.

Struggle with Identity

Being raised by an enmeshed mother can lead to people-pleasing tendencies. This often results in prioritizing her expectations over your own well-being. As a consequence, your career, education, and relationships may be shaped by her perception of what is right for you, disregarding your own wants, needs, and beliefs.

Low Self-esteem

Constant criticism and control from an enmeshed mother can lead to a lack of confidence and a negative self-image.

Anxiety and Depression

The constant pressure to please and fear of disappointing their mother can lead to high levels of anxiety and possibly even depression.


After seeking all the approval from your mother, you’ve become reliant on her opinion about your appearance and actions.

This eventually develops into insecurity as you become less assured of yourself and seek validation from others.

Treating Enmeshment in Your Family

If you suspect that your family may be experiencing enmeshment, it is essential to seek treatment to address and manage this issue.

Here are some steps you can take to begin treating enmeshment in your family:

  • Acknowledge the issue: The first step in addressing enmeshment is recognizing that it exists within your family. This may involve reflecting on patterns and dynamics within the family, as well as seeking outside perspectives from a therapist or counselor.
  • Establish boundaries: In enmeshed families, boundaries are often blurred or non-existent. It is essential to establish clear boundaries for each family member, including expectations for personal space, privacy, and decision-making. This may involve setting limits on how much time family members spend together and practicing healthy communication skills.
  • Encourage individuality: In enmeshed families, there may be pressure to conform and please other family members. Encouraging each family member to develop their own interests, goals, and identities can help break the cycle of enmeshment and promote individuality.
  • Seek therapy: Therapy or counseling can be a valuable tool for addressing enmeshment in families. A therapist can provide guidance on how to set boundaries, improve communication, and work through underlying issues that may be contributing to enmeshment.


Enmeshment is a form of emotional abuse that can lead to dysfunction in the family dynamic. It can be a challenging and complex issue to overcome, especially when it involves a gaslighting parent like an enmeshed mother. However, by understanding the signs and symptoms of enmeshment, setting boundaries, and seeking therapy, you can break free from the cycle of enmeshment and develop healthy relationships with those around you.

If you feel like you may be struggling with enmeshment or are seeking support in navigating your relationship with an enmeshed mother, know that there is help and hope available.

Reach out to a therapist or support group to gain the tools and guidance needed to break free from enmeshment and live a fulfilling life. Remember, you deserve to live a life where your voice is heard, and your boundaries are respected. Enmeshment may have been a part of your past, but it does not have to define your future.